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When the Cached Link is the Weakest Link: Search Engine Caches under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act by Miquel Peguera :: SSRN us digital millennium copyright act search engine

When the Cached Link is the Weakest Link: Search Engine Caches under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act

56 Journal of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 589, 2009

Columbia Public Law Research Paper No. 08-176

58 Pages Posted: 20 May 2008 Last revised: 28 Nov 2013

Miquel Peguera

Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC); Stanford Universit ojqosyys. moncler shoes womensy - Stanford Law School Center for Internet and Society

Date Written: May 21, 2008


When crawling the net, search engines' robots make a copy of each web page they visit. These copies are stored in the search engine's cache. In their search results, along with the link to the actual web page and a brief snippet from it, the main search engines provide a link to the cached copy as well. In Field v. Google the court held that the operation of Google's cache falls under the caching safe harbor of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act. Examining both the plain language of the statutory text and its legislative history, this paper shows why search engine caches are not covered by the DMCA caching safe harbor. Taking into account the Ninth Circuit analysis in Perfect 10 v. Amazon, this paper further suggests that the unavailability of a safe harbor does matter, since other defenses may fall short or involve higher litigation costs. In addition, this paper discusses whether an amendment of the DMCA safe harbor regime would be advisable.

Keywords: search engines, DMCA, caching, cache, copyright, safe harbors

JEL Classification: K11, O34

Suggested Citation: Suggested Citation

Peguera, Miquel, When the Cached Link is the Weakest Link: Search Engine Caches under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (May 21, 2008). 56 Journal of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A. 589, 2009; Columbia Public Law Research Paper No. 08-176. Available at SSRN: https:///abstract=1135274

Miquel Peguera (Contact Author) Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC) ( email )

Tibidabo Av. 39-43
Barcelona, 08035

Stanford University - Stanford Law School Center for Internet and Society

559 Nathan Abbott Way
Stanford, CA 94305-8610
United States


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mens moncler hat uk Torrent Search Engines Unlawful, U.S. Judge Says Share share tweet comment email Author: David Kravets David Kravets security 12.28.09 02:54 pm Torrent Search Engines Unlawful, U.S. Judge Says

The operator of a popular BitTorrent search site said Monday he will likely challenge last week's landmark decision by a U.S. judge declaring such sites unlawful and no different from conventional peer-to-peer piracy services.

"We do think from our preliminary review there are a number of issues for appeal," said Ira Rothken, attorney for torrent search engine ISO Hunt , the defendant in the case.

The long-awaited decision, while not unexpected, was the first in the United States in which a federal judge found that BitTorrent search engines are an unlawful avenue (.pdf) to free movies, music, videogames and software. A contrary ruling likely would have sparked a gold rush of BitTorrent prospectors in the United States.

Targeted in the case was Gary Fung, a Canadian who operates ISO Hunt and other torrent search engines. Among other things, he argued that U.S. laws did not attach to him, and if they did, that his websites were protected under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act.

In a lawsuit brought by the Motion Picture Association of America, U.S. District Judge Stephen Wilson in Los Angeles ruled: "Defendants' technology is nothing more than old wine in a new bottle."

Fung's "intent to induce infringement is overwhelming and beyond reasonable dispute."

In terms of infringement, the judge said ISO Hunt was no different than Napster and Grokster. But he said the BitTorrent technology was far superior and "obviously increases the potential for copyright infringement."

The judge wrote that, instead of having to log into a proprietary network to download copyright files from each others' computers, "users access defendants' generally accessible website in order to download those files. And instead of downloading content files directly through defendants' website, defendants' users download dot-torrent files that automatically trigger the downloading of content files. These technological details are, at their core, indistinguishable from the previous technologies."

The MPAA has sued dozens of similar sites in the United States, resulting in settlements or default judgments. The industry group won an $111 million default judgment against TorrentSpy last year after a federal judge concluded the now-shuttered tracker hid evidence.

That case is on appeal, but Judge Wilson's ruling marks the first time that the legal merits of torrenting have been squarely addressed in the United States.

"The court's decision establishes a powerful precedent that makes clear, once again, that website operators must respect the rights of content owners and control infringement on their websites, or face liability for their actions," MPAA vice president Daniel Mandil said in a statement.

Fung, in an e-mail, said his sites should be protected by safe-harbor provisions of the copyright law, which immunize search engines from infringement liability if they promptly remove works when a rights-holder notifies them to take down infringing content.

"We are considering all options," Fung said.

Among other things, the judge said Fung has not "acted expeditiously to remove, or disable access to, the infringing material."

The judge said Fung's sites – including ISO Hunt, Torrentbox and Podtropolis – garner about 10 million hits monthly. Wilson noted that metadata for the sites included " warez " to alert search engines of the site's nature ,and that Fung was "fostering a community that encouraged – indeed, celebrated – copyright infringement."

But both Fung and Rothken said the judge got it wrong, that the site has removed thousands of infringing files upon proper request. "This alone, among other reasons, contradicts allegations that we willfully induce infringements," Fung said.

The decision came eight months after a Stockholm court ruled similarly in the movie studios and Swedish government's case against The Pirate Bay , the world's largest BitTorrent site. That case, a blend of a civil and a criminal trial, is on appeal.

That April decision calls for the jailing of the Swedish site's four co-founders. Despite a Stockholm court's orders, the site remains functional.

Fung does not face any prison time. The judge did not order Fung to shutter his sites or pay monetary damages. A hearing on those matters is scheduled Jan. 11 in Los Angeles.

#bittorrent #Digital Millennium Copyright Act #Pirate Bay Most Popular gear How To Turn Off Snapchat’s Stalkerish Snap Map Feature Author: Liz Stinson Liz Stinson gear iOS 11: Superhuman Siri, Drag and Drop, a Totally Remodeled App Store Author: David Pierce David Pierce security Petya Ransomware Outbreak Sweeps Europe Author: Lily Hay Newman Lily Hay Newman More Stories

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